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Main Cyber Security terms that everyone must know

Cyber security is part of a secure and well-ordered digital world. We know that some of the most advanced companies have become victims to cyber attacks and cyber security has become unavoidable. In this digital era, all those who use computers or technology are at the risk of getting their digital data compromised. However, you should not worry about it, if you really know what you are doing.

Knowing some of the cyber basics will help you in securing your personal as well as official data. Here we provide some of the most important cyber security terminology that everyone should know:

  1. Cloud

It is a technology that allows us to store and access our files or data through the internet from anywhere in the world. In other terms it is a collection of computers having large storage capacity that remotely serve requests.

  1. Software

A set of instructions, programs or data that tell a computer to perform a task. These instructions are compiled into a package that can be installed and use by the clients.

  1. Domain

A group of computers, printers and devices that are interconnected and governed together. Your computer is a part of a domain at your workplace.

  1. Virtual Private Network (VPN)

An encrypted connection over the Internet from a device to a network. It gives the user privacy while using the internet by masking the location and encrypting traffic.

  1. IP Address

It is a unique number assigned to all devices which is used to identify computers on the Internet.

  1. Exploit

A malicious software or script that takes advantage of a computer’s vulnerability usually to take control of computers or steal network data.

  1. Breach

A breach occurs when a hacker successfully exploits a vulnerability in a computer or device, and gets access to its files and network.

  1. Firewall

It is a system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be hardware or software-based.

  1. Malware

A collective term used for a number of malicious software designed to cause damage to data and the computer. Malware include: viruses, trojans, worms and ransomware.

  1. Virus

A type of malware that replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code. When executed, it corrupts, erase or modify information on a computer and spreads to others.

  1. Ransomware

A type of malware that infects your system and prevents you from accessing files on it by holding your data hostage. It will encrypt files and displays a message demanding for a ransom that has to be paid in order to get the data decrypted.

  1. Trojan horse

A type of malware that allows an attacker to gain remote access to a computer through a “back door”.

  1. Worm

A type of standalone malware that can replicate itself in order to spread the infection to other connected computers.

  1. Bot/Botnet

It is a software application or script that performs tasks on command and allows a hacker to take complete control of an affected computer remotely. A collection of Internet-connected devices, each of which is running one or more bots is known as a botnet.

  1. Spyware

A type of malware that is installed on a user without their knowledge for spying. Its functions include activity monitoring, collecting keystrokes, data harvesting (account information, logins, financial data) etc.

  1. Rootkit

A type of malware that allows an unauthorized person to remotely access your computer. They are dangerous as they cannot be detected easily and hence, it can stay on your system for a long time.

  1. DDoS

DDos or distributed denial of service is a type of cyber-attack. It tries to make an online service unavailable by overwhelming it with traffic from multiple sources.

  1. Phishing or Spear Phishing

It is a technique used by hackers to get sensitive information by contacting the victim through email, telephone or text message by posing as a legitimate person. They lure the victims to providing sensitive data such as bank details, passwords etc.

  1. Encryption

The process of converting an information into secret code to hide the information to prevent theft. The data can then be accessed only with a key.

  1. BYOD (Bring Your Own Device)

It is a company security policy that allows the employees to use their personal devices at workplace. A BYOD policy sets limitations and restrictions on whether or not a personal phone or laptop can be connected over the corporate network.

  1. Pen-testing

Penetration testing or pen testing is the practice of testing a computer system, network or web application by using hacking tools and techniques to look for any security vulnerabilities that could be exploited by an attacker.

  1. Social Engineering

It is a technique used by attackers to trick people to give sensitive and private information. The idea behind social engineering is to take advantage of a victim’s natural tendencies and emotional reactions.

  1. Clickjacking

It is a hacking technique in which the attacker tricks the victims into clicking on an unintended link or button, usually disguised as a harmless element.

  1. Deepfake

An audio or video clip that has been edited and manipulated to look and sound just like the real thing. It is very dangerous as it can easily convince people into believing something which is not true.

  1. White Hat / Black Hat

The differences in hacker “hats” shows the intention of the hacker.

White hat: The network is breached in order to get sensitive information with the consent of the owner and hence it is completely legal. This method is done mainly to test infrastructure vulnerabilities.

Black hat: The network is breached in order to steal information that will be used to harm the owner or the users without consent. It’s entirely illegal.

We have mentioned only a few of the cyber security terms here which will help you get started. Every user must take necessary steps to make sure that your personal as well as business data is protected.

Image Credits : Masters Portal

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